The challenge to the materials technical team is to generate a cost-neutral 50 percent vehicle weight reduction. The cost of the dielectric material is low (close to that for polypropylene) for laboratory-scale quantities, and the committee expects that it would be even less expensive for large-quantity production. vehicles, they cost less and offer field weakening over a wider speed range. This is desirable because it improves efficiency. In regard to rapid charging, this strategy is seen as potentially essential to the broad penetration of BEVs. Regeneration process: Process cost, efficiency, environmental impact. In all these endeavors, the key hurdle continues to be detailed fundamental understanding of the chemical, thermal, and physical processes taking place within the power train and combustion system. Additional sensing devices are being developed and integrated into the engine cylinder and power train that facilitate better control of the in-cylinder conditions and power-train energy flow management, which is a necessity for the integration of LTC operation into the engine map. The budget was increased from $24.4 million in FY 2006 to $40.8 million in FY 2007, with a significant increase primarily for PHEV batteries. Technical tasks have been established that address each of these issues. The focus is on the two subsystems—battery chargers and system controllers—used in hybrid, electric, or fuel cell vehicles. Newer, lower-cost membrane development activities have been funded in recent years, and although the results of such. There are. “blocking” technology for vehicle introduction. The vehicle propulsion system activities are focused on attaining specific hybrid vehicle traction drive performance targets (see Figure 3-5) over the next 10 years for cost, gravimetric and volumetric density, and efficiency through advancements in materials, system design, and component technology. The hydrogen storage capacity of tanks is performance limiting for some vehicle architectures, but hydrogen storage overall is not a, TABLE 3-2 Centers of Excellence (COEs) Project Focus and Participating Organizations, Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage. The latest data show the following accomplishments: Motor design. New focus and funding should be given to compressed-gas storage in order to meet near-term needs for hydrogen storage. When computed over 6 years using an 8 percent discount rate for future savings, the resulting net present value (NPV) for the redesign is $335. They will reduce the fuel consumption associated with their use, and they will allow the engine to be tuned differently with an attendant increase in efficiency. Recommendation 3-7. Three Li-ion battery chemistries classified by the cathode material, including (1) lithium nickel, cobalt, and aluminum; (2) lithium iron phosphate; and (3) lithium manganese spinel and a carbon anode have been developed and tested for HEV applications. In powertrain, there’s fuel air or emission control, fuel or air, ignition and misfire, emission control, vehicle speed, idle soeed, computer, and transmission. Satyapal, S. 2009. An additional 50 percent weight savings of 115 lbs may be possible from downsizing brakes, suspension, engine, power train, and wheels and tires. Selection criteria were established (e.g., gravimetric capacity, potential to regenerate onboard, regenerable, acceptable phase change, H2 release rate materials stability, endothermic release, H2 release temperature). In the case of hybrid electric vehicles, both oil and engine coolants are available. Systems analysis of hydrogen storage options has been accomplished (Argonne National Laboratory). Milestones achieved since the Phase 2 NRC (2008) review include the following: The no-go decision made for vehicle hydrogen storage during the Phase 2 review was to discontinue applied R&D in pure, undoped, single-walled carbon nanotubes based on the fact that they were not able to meet the storage target of 6 wt% close to room temperature (2006). In addition, significant work was undertaken to obtain a basic understanding of the thermal response of the battery in both normal and abuse conditions to make sure that a condition of thermal runaway does not occur. 2009c. Cooling. The mass reduction achieved was 29 percent for the magnesium components and 7.8 percent for the engine subsystem, which exceeded the weight-savings goal. In the opinion of the committee, this is the kind of stretch technology that is needed to reduce component size and material cost. The Partnership and the VT program should now follow up by initiating a research program on improved processes for reducing cost and recovering useful materials from this effort. Recommendation 3-14. In response to the recommendation for a strong basic research portfolio, it was noted that BES held a contractors’ meeting for principal investigators funded on projects related to the Partnership in conjunction with the DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting in 2006 and again in 2009. Having an up-to-date, open-source-code CFD program for researchers to use is a critical aspect of achieving the improvement potential of the ICE and aftertreatment power trains. Conventionally this is accomplished by using thin laminations of steel that contains silicon. Examples include: total nonparticulates, 100 ppm; H2O, 5 ppm; total hydrocarbons (C1 basis), 2 ppm; O2, 5 ppm; He, N2, Ar combined, 100 ppm; CO2, 1 ppm; CO, 0.2 ppm; total S, 0.004 ppm; formaldehyde (HCHO), 0.01 ppm; formic acid (HCOOH), 0.2 ppm; NH3, 0.1 ppm; total halogenates, 0.05 ppm; maximum particle size, <10 μm; particulate concentration, <1 μg/L H2. The DOE should assess which critical technology development efforts are not yielding sufficient progress and ensure that adequate levels of support for alternative pathways are in place. It should be noted that Honda has teamed with Rohm and Haas to develop inverters using SiC devices because of the increase in efficiency as well as the reduction in size because of easier cooling that can be attained in inverter applications. With respect to this review, since FY 2007 approximately $140 million (see Figure 3-2) has been appropriated in total to support the attainment of the fuel cell technology roadmap R&D (DOE, 2009a) objectives so that the Partnership’s chances of meeting the 2010 targets and the 2015 commercialization-readiness decision goal are enhanced. Primary areas for development are similar to those for power electronics: to reduce size, losses, and cost. DOE. This requires accurate control and manipulation of all engine control parameters for each operating condition. The research work supported is high-risk and potentially important for meeting national energy and emission objectives. All aspects of the engine operation are being pursued. It impacts the fuel cell developers as well as the supply chain. This engine burns an air/fuel mixture inside itself in order to drive a series of pistons and connecting rods that in turn rotate a crankshaft providing us with a continuous rotating motion with which to drive the vehicle and other components… Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications. The storage capacity of current tanks does not meet the long-term goals, but it may be adequate for some applications for which the cost can be justified. Such fibers provide the necessary high strength and lightweight characteristics. Linkage between the hydrogen storage and production and delivery activities should receive attention. (Tesla is an expensive sports car that does not meet the target goals of the Partnership.) A review of processes and technologies for the recycling of lithium-ion secondary batteries, Journal of Power Sources 177 (2008) 512-527. As a specific example of the disparity, the costing was performed using a two-stack configuration, although even in the 2010 goals-assessment configuration it is expected that there will be a single stack. Vehicle implementation is pending safety and cost analysis.18. The down-select for onboard reversible hydrogen storage materials and for chemical hydrogen storage approaches with the potential to meet 2015 targets is set for the fourth quarter of 2013. The long-range goals of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership—to transition to a transportation system that uses sustainable energy resources and produces minimal criteria or net carbon emissions on a life-cycle or source-to-wheels basis—are extremely ambitious. The goal is to develop vehicles that would allow a 40+ mile electric range, enough to satisfy about 70 percent of the daily commuting travel in the United States. 2009a. During the past year, the materials technical team arrived at a useful rule of thumb in which 1.0 to 1.5 lb of secondary weight savings should be achievable for each 1 lb of primary weight saved, provided that the entire vehicle can be redesigned to take advantage of the savings. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Intematix Corporation, Millennium Cell, Northern Arizona University, Pennsylvania State University, Rohm and Haas, Inc., University of Alabama, University of California-Davis, University of Missouri, University of Pennsylvania, University of Washington, US Borax, Center of Excellence on Hydrogen Sorption, High surface area sorbents including metal-carbon hybrids, boron-carbon materials, metal organic frameworks, nanohorns and fibers, conducting and porous polymers; modeling and mechanistic understanding, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., California Institute of Technology, Duke University, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Rice University, University of Michigan, University of North Carolina, University of Pennsylvania, Light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides, modified lithium amides, and other advanced onboard reversible hydrides, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, Brookhaven National Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, General Electric, HRL Laboratories, Intematix Corporation, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, Stanford University, University of Hawaii, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Nevada-Reno, University of Pittsburgh/Carnegie Mellon University, University of Utah, Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, Energy challenges associated with developing low-pressure material-based hydrogen storage systems for enabling onboard storage of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles and for achieving customer expected driving range and performance. SOURCE: Reprinted from DOE (2009a). Permanent magnets: The emphasis will be more on molded high-strength magnets. Recommendation 3-18. For fuel cell systems, purity meets SAE J2719, Information Report on the Development of a Hydrogen Quality Guideline in Fuel Cell Vehicles. Of these funds, $1.5 billion in grants is for producing batteries and their components and expanding battery-recycling capacity. The VT program, in collaboration with the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), manages the electrochemical energy storage technology program with a goal of the advancement of battery technologies, to the point that the program partners are encouraged to introduce hybrid and electric vehicles with large market potential. Certain vehicles even completely convert the engine output to electricity and then use that electricity to drive a motor for propulsion (Diesel train engines). However, the immature status of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack technology (the technology under development for automobiles), coupled with the need for suitable subsystems (e.g., liquid-fuel processor, air-management system, etc. As discussed in further detail in the section below on “Electric Propulsion and Electrical Systems,” a series drivetrain powers the vehicle only by an electric motor using electricity from the battery. Twenty-one hydrogen storage patents were issued. Battery safety thus in large measure is a system characteristic that needs to be managed carefully. Furthermore, in view of the fact that the hydrogen storage program has been in place for less than a decade, the Partnership should strongly support continuing the funding of basic research activities. The most popular type of engine is referred to as the Internal Combustion Engine. The company considered four chemistries (lithium nickel cobalt aluminum, lithium nickel cobalt manganese, lithium manganese spinel, and lithium iron phosphate cathodes, all with carbon anodes), 16 different scenarios (varying electrode loading and percent capacity fade to end of life), and a useful state of charge from 10 to 90 percent. Allowable degradation outside these limits is TBD. The modern automobile is a complex technical system employing subsystems with specific design functions. The chassis includes the wheels and tires, the brakes, the suspension system, and the body. But there are vehicles where steering is done on all four wheels or both the axes too. l Total hydrogen lost from the storage system, including leaked or vented hydrogen; relates to loss of range. Results to date indicate that most of the 2010 fuel cell performance targets are going to be met. In most of the cases the engine is an Internal combustion type that converts chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy. FIGURE 3-3 Structure of the National Hydrogen Storage Project. Attached on each side of the rack are tie rods, which transfer the lateral motion of the rack to the steering arms - one mou… FIGURE 3-8 Schematic of series drive configuration, typical fuel cell vehicle configurations. In this program alone, the 8 years of funding has resulted in three cost-shared solicitations, resulting in many R&D contracts ranging from early programmatically focused efforts, to “go/no-go” milestone-based R&D. The attainment of the majority of the 2015 targets is still difficult to predict. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) project is producing a gate driver circuit to function at temperatures of 200°C (the project is ongoing at ORNL, and hardware exists). Anderson, B., and I. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Both liquid and air cooling are conventionally used in vehicles. A peak engine efficiency of 45 percent has been achieved for a hydrogen-fueled ICE. Again, devices other than doped silicon, such as the SiC discussed above, have the advantage, and development work should continue. The four COEs and the independent projects constitute the framework of the National Hydrogen Storage Project (see Box 3-1 and Figure 3-3). Liquid HC fuels have very high energy density and specific energy relative to batteries and hydrogen systems, but the efficiency of the ICE is typically lower than that of systems using electric motors and power electronics and fuel cell systems. DOE/GO-102003-1741. Washington, D.C.: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Power electronics also require capacitors and solders, and in some cases their temperature limits the operation of power electronics. Recommendation 3-5. Linking these subsystems together will be a multi-tier, segmented network designed to support real-time control without adding excessive cable weight to the car. The limitation currently is cost. Since the Phase 2 review, there has been improvement in discharge and regen-, TABLE 3-4 Target Characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries for 2010. In addition, improvements in the aftertreatment systems, particularly lean NOx systems, will be a critical component of meeting the technical team’s targets. The DOE should continue to support the development and dissemination of the open-source-code computational fluid dynamics program KIVA. The program approach of using the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE to fabricate and evaluate complete vehicle-ready test systems is an excellent technique for selecting the most viable material configuration. The independent research projects explore promising hydrogen storage materials and concepts, off-board hydrogen storage for hydrogen delivery, the standardized testing of hydrogen storage properties, and analyses of life-cycle cost, energy efficiency, and environmental impact for hydrogen storage systems. Novel materials for hydrogen storage were a high-priority area for BES funding, receiving $8.0 million in FY 2008 and $9.0 million in FY 2009. This seems very promising, but the committee’s information is as of May 2009. As with the discussion in this section, hybrid and even plug-in hybrid power trains are included in the general classification of power train. Other Subsystems An automobile has many subsystems. Although the BES mandate on energy storage is broader and longer term, it works in close coordination with the VT program to advance the energy storage needs for automotive applications. If the price of oil doubles, the cost of polyolefin will increase significantly, since polyolefin comes mostly from oil or perhaps natural gas. In the hybrid, the energy source is the HC fuel; the hybridization allows more optimal use of the engine and vehicle power-train system. As the vehicle mix within the on-the-road light-duty vehicle fleet is likely to change with the implementation of the new fuel economy standards, the advanced combustion and emission control technical team should. Cost has been a limiting factor in the use of commercial carbon-fiber-reinforced composites in the design of automotive structures and body panels. The committee believes that federal funding for fuel cell activities is appropriate and that it remains extremely important, especially for the high-risk-related technical barriers. 2008. Recently Denso has exhibited SiC-based “power devices.”17. The Partnership should consider conducting a project to investigate induction motors as replacements for the permanent magnet motors now almost universally used for electric propulsion. This is the focus of the Partnership’s advanced combustion and emission control (ACEC) technical team. This is essential because the vehicle needs more torque while accelerating and less during constant speed cruising. The Hydrogen Sorption COE has investigated 160 materials, and 35 percent are still in its inventory. This section of the report deals with the activities associated with the last item, Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines R&D, with an FY 2010 budget appropriation of $22.29 million. The inverter changes a dc voltage that varies over narrow limits depending on power to an ac voltage of variable amplitude and frequency depending on motor speed and load; thus the two functions can be performed in two stages (making variable “chopped” dc voltage and then variable frequency) called modulator and inverter or in a single stage called a modulating inverter. By 2015, develop and verify onboard hydrogen storage systems achieving (old targets) 3 kWh/kg (9 wt%), 2.7 kWh/L, and $2/kWh; (new, targets) 1.8 kWh/kg (5.5 wt%), 1.3 kWh/L (40 g/L). All of these changes will force an evolution in engine and power-train design, and consequently, the optimal power-train configuration, operating scenario, and fuel characteristics will also evolve. Due to its high band gap and operating temperatures that exceed 250°C, silicon carbide (SiC) offers power inverter efficiencies over silicon. Thus the battery is much bigger and operates over a larger variation of the SOC. The EERE hydrogen technology budget appropriation for hydrogen storage was $59.2 million in FY 2009, which was 36 percent above the FY 2008 appropriation ($43.5 million) for applied hydrogen storage research (see Table 3-3). These results are promising but will not be achieved without adequate funding, which is required to continue to make progress and to attract outstanding scientists and engineers to this line of research. Howell, D., and K. Snyder, “Electrochemical Energy Storage,” Presentation to the committee, August 4, 2009. reach $250/kWh under any of the scenarios considered. In a parallel drivetrain, there is a direct connection between the engine and the wheels. Bulk amorphous alloy composition was identified and kilogram-scale production was accomplished by gas atomization. The recycling of advanced automotive batteries should be easier than that for small consumer batteries since there are existing programs on the. Battery cost will play an even bigger role in the eventual success of the PHEV application because much larger batteries are required. However, KIVA III is more than 10 years old and lacks important, modern numerical technologies such as parallel computing. All of these will impact the ACEC program. A three-dimensional performance model of large-format cells may be useful in predicting the over-voltage and temperature variations in large-format cells during high-rate charging (see, e.g., the NREL model, Kim and Smith [2008]). This subsystem provides security services to and enforces security policies on the SoC. Building these devices on Si is a desirable first step, since expensive SiC wafers are not used, and should be encouraged. The storage system costs are currently under review and will be changed at a future date. Learn about the working of different systems incorporated inside an automotive. Different types of steering systems are: To slow down or to completely stop a vehicle one needs braking a system. It has been assumed that the 2015 hydrogen storage targets of 1,300 Wh/L and 1,800 Wh/kg have been met in performing this analysis. The vehicle is then redesigned to achieve a 10 percent weight reduction using lightweight materials and/or better structural utilization. TABLE 3A-1 Technical System Targets: Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Vehicles, Min delivery pressure from storage system; FC = fuel cell, ICE = internal combustion engine, Max delivery pressure from storage systemg. The R&D program continues to look for materials that will inherently improve the safety of the system. Cost (reduction) is the other area where significant advancements have been reported. Significant improvement in their performance can result in battery electric vehicles (BEVs), one of the ways to meet the Partnership’s goal of “energy freedom, environmental freedom, and vehicle freedom.” The FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program (now renamed the Vehicle Technologies [VT] program), has supported the advancement of batteries and ultracapacitors from the beginning as a key to developing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The magnesium castings study is completed, and no further technical effort is anticipated by the Partnership as recommended in the Phase 2 report. The complete documentation and communication of. These are ambitious goals and perhaps may not be attained in the time frame shown. The punching and assembly of laminations is expensive, and for years the “holy grail” of soft magnetic materials has been to discover a new material that has both high electrical resistivity and high permeability at the flux density levels needed. The biofuels program has grown significantly. In such cases, the DOE go/no-go decision-making process can be and is employed. Draw a diagram of a car as a system and label all of its system characteristics. FIGURE 3-6 Schematic of parallel drive configuration for a hybrid vehicle (similar in concept to the Honda Insight Mercedes S series). “Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications.” Presentation at the DOE 2009 Annual Merit Review, May 21, Arlington, Virginia. 2009. Although it may be argued that this is postcompetitive activity, in the committee’s view some work needs to be done to ensure safety and to explore rapid charging. They should also conduct a study to determine the cost of recycling and the potential of savings from recycled materials. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Recommendation 3-8. The Chassis electrical system is comprised of all wiring and components except for those used by the engine, its ancillaries, and any engine control circuits. If it is assumed that each 1.0 lb of lightweight material generates 1.25 lb of secondary weight savings on average, then a current vehicle weighing. GE Global Research is the lead organization for a team19 developing an IPM machine for hybrid vehicles. The objective in designing new magnetic materials is to reduce two sources of loss, known as (1) hysteresis and (2) eddy current. They are: All the above mentioned suspension types differ only by construction. Weiss, M. A., J.B. Heywood, E.M. Drake, A. Schafer, and F.F. These system targets are listed in the annex to this chapter. All rights reserved. The structural materials efforts and budget should reflect this reality. The Partnership’s budget for electrochemical energy technologies has increased as the importance of PHEV battery development has increased. See J. Quinn (GM) and J. Carpenter (DOE), “Materials Tech Team Peer Review Report,” Presentation to the committee, August 4, 2009, Southfield, Michigan. Silicon-on-Insulator Gate Drivers. These topologies have been thoroughly investigated over the past 50 years, and basically the selection depends on optimizing the operation. Recommendation 3-21. Recommendation 3-17. Each system, though primarily independent, is influenced by the effect of other systems interacting with it. A DOE hydrogen program solicitation was issued for R&D for onboard vehicular hydrogen storage to support the COE or as independent projects (2008). k Total hydrogen lost into the environment as H2; relates to hydrogen accumulation in enclosed spaces. Recommendation 3-6. The PHEV architecture plays an important role in the design of the battery and how it stores energy from the grid, the gasoline engine, or from regeneration during braking. These increased efforts will require increased funding for high-energy batteries and include leveraging all other efforts on electrochemistry and energy storage materials efforts within the DOE and the larger electrochemistry community. In order to couple an engine running at high speed and a gear system running at low speed, we introduce a clutch which connects the engine and the gear non-rigidly. provided by the DOE and $2.171 million provided by contractors) that runs from October 2007 through June 2011. 2009b. Early market applications will. However, two separate DOE-funded studies, with independent oversight, have concluded that at volumes of 500,000 units per year, the cost per kilowatt for the fuel cell subsystem, including the fuel cell and BoP, will be approximately $60-$70/kW (Satyapal, 2009; James and Kalinoski, 2009; Sinha et al., 2009). Vehicle fuel cell requirements can be, and usually are, different and more challenging with respect to cost, reliability, and manufacturability when compared to the other nonvehicle applications. Wade, 2001. 70 MPa) compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, or chilled hydrogen (35 to 77 K) and up to 5,000 psi (350 bar or ca. A single amount of $1 million will be awarded for the development of an onboard hydrogen storage material that meets or exceeds a set of performance targets specified in the competition announcement. On-road vehicle operation and performance trials have proven to be invaluable in uncovering unanticipated problems and verifying operation, and yet there is no plan to continue the funding for this activity. Thus, the DOE should increase its focus on precompetitive R&D related to both the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant—the other components of the fuel cell system required for successful operation, such as controls, fuel storage, instrumentation, and so forth—to develop alternatives to the down-selected technologies. SOURCE: Rogers (2009). The focus of these projects is primarily to develop high-energy-density batteries. The attainment of, or progress toward, 2010 targets, as shown in Table 3-1 for selected fuel cell stack targets, can also be considered as a measure of progress of the program. The PHEV allows for flexibility in the energy being used to power the wheels, whether it is electricity from batteries or fuel powering the ICE. However, there are important differences between consumer and automotive battery efforts and applications. A similar conclusion was stated in the Phase 2 report (NRC, 2008). See, for example, . Another measurement of progress is the number of granted patents related to FreedomCAR technology which have been derived from DOE funding. In this quest, all aspects of the engine and power train are under investigation.
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