Copper and copper alloys are tough. 3. So copper is a lattice of positive copper ions with free electrons moving between them. In this way, energy is transferred from the moving electrons to the copper ions. The strength and hardness of copper can also be increased by alloying, but this results in a decrease in electrical conductivity. Physical media refers to the physical materials that are used to store or transmit information in data communications.These physical media are generally physical objects made of materials such as copper or glass.They can be touched and felt, and have physical properties such as weight and color. The article below highlights some of the important chemical properties of copper. Copper can be readily joined by brazing, soldering, bolting or adhesives. Primarily, copper’s physical properties of softness and malleability make it one of the top sought after metals in wire production, if not the first. The aqueous solutions of copper ions in the oxidation state +II have a blue colour, whereas copper ions in the oxidation state +I are colourless. However copper wire behaves quite differently than gold due to its different physical properties, some of which are beneficial and others detrimental to bonding performance. Good-quality spark plugs have a central copper electrode to enable heat to be removed and prevent overheating. Because of this, it is used in special tools and military applications. Suitable alloying elements can positively influence the formation of these coatings. C110 is a commercial copper which is more economical than C102. What are the physical properties of Copper? This means that it can easily be shaped into pipes and drawn into wires. Facts and Info about Copper Properties This article on Copper properties provide facts and information about the physical and chemical properties of Copper which are useful as homework help for chemistry students. Copper is an excellent electrical conductor.Most of its uses are based on this property or the fact that it is also a good thermal conductor. Copper and copper compounds give a greenish color to a flame. Copper  + tin = tin bronze However, its thermal conductivity is 30 times worse than that of copper. The copper gets hotter. However, many of its applications also rely on one or more of its other properties. Click on the diagram above to see a larger version. This has been made possible by copper (of at least 99.9% purity), which has the best electrical conductivity of any common metal – one of the more well-known physical properties of copper. Use the drop-down menus to determine which physical properties are being described. Copper can be combined easily with other metals to make alloys. Tensile strength ––copper has a high level t… Figure 1 – A copper wire is made of a lattice of copper ions. Use the drop-down menus to determine which physical properties are being described. One of the most important properties of copper is that it is malleable. Current flows easily through copper thanks to its small electrical resistance, without much loss of energy. This is useful for pipework and for making sealed copper vessels. Table-1: Specific resistances of conducting elements. This is very important when we connect the wire to a battery. Copper has been used for thousands of years, and is a very ductile metal, meaning it can be stretched out to form thin wire. Get an answer to your question “List 4 physical properties of each of the following: a piece of copper wire 500g of butter a glass of milk a candle a piece of aluminum ...” in Chemistry if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. Catalysts in biological reactions are called enzymes. Properties: Copper has a melting point of 1083.4 +/- 0.2°C, boiling point of 2567°C, specific gravity of 8.96 (20°C), with a valence of 1 or 2. Elsewhere, it is also an important feature for artists crafting sculptures and statues, and for jewellery makers and other artisans working with this beautiful metal. metals get hot when a current flows through them. Normally, the free electrons move about randomly in the metal. It is highly malleable and ductile at ordinary temperature. It will be important in some … For any CDA-related enquiries, please email: cda@copperalliance.org.uk, © Copper Development Association 2018 | Privacy Notice | Disclaimer | Sitemap | Location Copper and its alloys, such as brass, are used for jewellery and ornaments. This property is seeing the installation of surfaces made from copper and copper alloys in hospitals and other areas where hygiene is a key concern. This is very important when we connect the wire to a battery. The calculator assumes copper wire for resistance and voltage calculations. It really is a vital element! They have an attractive golden colour which varies with the copper content. Therefore, it is relatively inert against chemicals.  |  The copper wire has a lower specific resistance value. Electric motors, which are wound with high conductivity wire, are used in many of these devices. Go to the Education Resources Menu page to view all resources, Go to the download section to access zip files of all resources for each subject and age group for use offline. Notice that they vibrate around the same place whereas the electrons can move through the lattice. Copper has many extremely useful properties, including: See below for more information on each of these properties, and how they benefit us in our daily lives. A good electrical conductivity is the same as a small electrical resistance. United Kingdom, Please note, Copper Development Association has closed . The alloys are harder, stronger and tougher than pure copper. The first alloy produced was copper melted with tin to form bronze – a discovery so important that periods in history are called The Bronze Age. This slows down the electron. Jordan, Egypt, and Israel have copper smelting locations that date back to 4500 B.C. High electrical conductivity ––copper has a high ability to conduct electric currents 2. Much later came brass (copper and zinc), and – in the modern age – cupronickel (copper and nickel). They are also known as conduction electrons, because they help copper to be a good conductor of heat and electricity. The copper ions at the hot end vibrate more. (The electrons are a bit like the particles of a gas that is free to move within the surfaces of the wire). The property of toughness is vital for copper and copper alloys in the modern world. Its preferred status in electrical wiring remains due to several properties. They don’t corrode and they can be bent to fit around corners. The copper alloy tree shows the options for adding other metals to make different alloys. Copper can be recycled without any loss of quality. Content by Bold & Pepper. The copper element is in the same periodic table group as silver and gold. Copper allows heat to pass through it quickly. Chemical properties are based on the ability or inability of the substance to produce new substances. Applications Around 40% of Europe’s demand is met from recycled copper. By continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. Pure copper with no exposure to the air maintains a pinkish color. Though both these properties are... Ductility. For a number of years, copper and glass were the only media used in computer networking. This means that they were well suited to being used for tools and weapons. Properties of Copper Copper is a highly malleable metal that can be shaped and bent without breaking when either cold or hot. Find information on copper and copper alloys, properties, applications and specifications. Conductivity. (Note: the electrons have been left out of the picture to keep it clear.). Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. An electric current will flow through all metals, however they still have some resistance, meaning the current needs to be pushed (by a battery) in order to keep flowing. In industry, this is very useful for plumbing pipework and joining busbars, which are vital elements of power distribution systems. Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire HP2 7TE This creates a thin layer of tarnish over the visible portion, giving copper its unique coloring. The bigger the resistance, the harder we have to push (and the smaller the current is). There are 19.3 grams of gold in one cubic centimeter. However, where size rather than weight is important, copper is the best choice. A high-purity copper wire harness system carries current from the battery throughout a vehicle to equipment such as lights, central locking, onboard computers and satellite navigation systems. Copper wire is used to transfer electricity. conductivity. The free electrons move through the copper, flowing from the negative to positive terminal of the battery (note that they flow in the opposite direction to conventional current; this is because they have a negative charge). Belgium. Iron turns to liquid at 1,534.85°C. The copper ions are vibrating (see Figure 1). There are free electrons that move through this lattice like a gas. Figure 1a shows that the electrical conductivity of Cu is significantly better than Au. The electron collides with the ion and bounces off it. Imagine the joy of ancient man when he discovered that his carefully formed arrowheads no longer shattered on impact. Content by Bold & Pepper. This leads to applications where rapid heat transfer is required such as heat exchangers in air conditioning units, vehicle radiators, heat sinks in computers, heat sealing machines and televisions, … 171 , 9 , September 2013 , ASM , . Copper wire. For panel and general wiring, see the wire loss table. It becomes brittle near melting point. It is also used in construction and industrial machine. Most of copper element is used in manufacturing electrical and electronic equipments such as wirings and components. They can be made even harder by hammering them – a process called ‘work hardening’. Uses of Copper. Copper's malleability, color, luster, and thermal and electrical conductivity are contrasted with its ability to react with concentrated nitric acid and silver nitrate. It has good solderability and corrosion resistance and is used for high current applications. (See, Pumps, domestic appliances (washing machines, dishwashers, fridges, vacuum cleaners), cars (starter motors, windscreen wipers, electric windows), computers (disc drives, fans), entertainment systems (DVD players). Below are some examples. ADVERTISEMENTS: 2. Copper wire is used to transfer electricity. The coil will produce a magnetic field and, being made of copper, won’t waste much electrical energy. The following describes different properties of copper, divided by type (chemical, mechanical and physical). It is found in some enzymes, one of which is involved in respiration. Figure 3 shows what happens when one end of the piece of copper gets hotter. Performance Advances in Copper-Nickel-Tin Spinodal Alloys , W. Raymond Cribb, Michael J. Gedeon, and Fritz C. Grensing , Advanced Materials and Processes , Vol. The values above are a measure of how quickly the other side gets as hot as the heated side. Figure 3 – The left hand end of the piece of copper is hotter. It is available in wrought form as wire, cable, strip and busbars and as castings for such components as electrical switchgear and welding equipment. When we close the switch, an electric current flows. Mechanical Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys at Low Temperatures, Application Data Sheet 144/8 R, CDA, . Copper is non-magnetic and non-sparking. Copper is inherently hygienic, meaning it is hostile to bacteria, viruses and fungi that settle on its surface. This chapter reviews the physical and mechanical properties of pure copper and copper alloys with the focus on precipitation-hardened CuCrZr and dispersion-strengthened CuAl25 alloys. Heat exchangers in hot water tanks, under floor heating systems, all weather football pitches and car radiators. Use the drop-down menus to determine which physical properties are being described. Copper and coppe r alloys are some of the most versatile engineering materials available. Service entrance wire must be AWG # 4 Copper wire. Electrical Properties of Cu and Au. We can connect a copper wire to a battery and a switch. Electrons have a negative charge.  |  The copper strip has to be thick so that it can carry a large current without melting. If we could look closely enough, we would see that there are electrons moving about between the copper atoms. It does so by reducing the activation energy. Nuggets of the metal could be found in streams in a few areas, and its properties allowed it to be easily worked without a required processing step. It is also often a by-product of silver production. For more information, see the Copper in Coinage resource. Each copper atom has lost one electron and become a positive ion. These include: Conducting heat Silver is very easy to bend. 5 Grovelands Business Centre High strength, high conductivity copper alloys are prime candidates for high heat flux applications in fusion energy systems. We sell quite a bit overseas, and most of the world uses metric wire sizes. As well as distributing water for domestic plumbing, copper tubes are used to safely convey natural gas to homes and businesses. Copper has a characteristic reddish brown colour. It refers to the extent, to which the metal can be deformed without taking stress and without breaking. The choice between copper and aluminum conductors should carefully compare the properties of the two metals, as each has advantages that outweigh the other under certain conditions. Copper + nickel + zinc = nickel silver. Copper just like other metals creates copper oxides the moment they get some air exposure. Alloy Wire. This heats up the cold end. Physical Properties Malleability. Imagine a world without electricity: no lighting, TVs, DVD players, iPads, electric kettles, mobiles, washing machines, fridges, vacuum cleaners, computers, cars, buses, electrified railways, underground transport systems or trams. This explains why: Copper is a good conductor of heat. Copper is low in the reactivity series. Properties of Copper. More than that, it is essential for life itself. The physical properties of copper make it react very profoundly with the air, most notably oxygen. Copper plays a crucial role in modern society. They do not shatter when they are dropped or become brittle when cooled below 0°C. However, due to the chemical properties of copper, the corrosion process is very slow. We can connect a copper wire to a battery and a switch. The material condition (alternative term: temper) is designated in standards either by the letter H, representing a minimum hardness,  or the letter R, representing a minimum tensile strength. Some of its energy has been transferred to the ion, which vibrates faster. Non-metals conducting heat Sometimes an ion blocks the path of a moving electron. For more information on the benefits of copper’s corrosion resistance for marine applications, see the Copper Alloys in Aquaculture resource. Copper is a metal made up of copper atoms closely packed together. Now the free electrons flow through the wire (Figure 2) they are moving from left to right (and still move randomly as well). Most metals are pretty good conductors; however, apart from silver, copper is the best. This is important for its use for pipes, electrical cables, saucepans and radiators. Use this demo to contrast the physical and chemical properties of matter. 1. This means that the reaction happens with oxygen present in the air and copper. 5. (See, Mains adaptors, electricity substations, power stations. There are free electrons that move through this lattice like a gas. This is much slower. It delivers electricity and clean water into our homes and cities and makes an important contribution to sustainable development. Additional facts and information regarding the Periodic Table and the elements may be accessed via the Periodic Table Site Map. Copper + aluminium = aluminium bronze European Copper Institute 5. Copper can be supplied in a range of conditions from annealed (soft) to fully hard, which is obtained by cold working. The ions are vibrating and the electrons can move through the copper (rather like a gas). The only other material that has similar resistance to corrosion is stainless steel. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. The best quality saucepans are copper bottomed to ensure uniform, rapid heating. Consider the rigidity of the wire. The average car contains about 1 km of wire. Compare this with how heat is conducted in a non-metal. Its density is 8.93 g cm -3. They are: 1. The primary mechanical properties of copper—hardness, strength and ductility—determine its condition. Copper + zinc = brass The copper ions in the wire vibrate. When exposed to the atmosphere, protective layers of oxides and poorly soluble basic salts form on the surface of copper and copper alloys. They also retain excellent impact resistance to 20 K. Copper Alliance® is a registered trademark of the International Copper Association, Ltd. All Rights Reserved, Created by Starring Jane They are attracted to the positive end of the battery. Rigidity is the opposite of malleability. ... C110 Copper Alloy Wire (Cu-ETP) Download PDF. The copper ions at the hot end vibrate more. Copper is essential for any kind of living. The generation, transmission and use of electricity has transformed the modern world. Native copper was probably one of the early metals worked by ancient people. In this way, energy is transferred through copper, from hot to cold. It is used in many heating applications because it doesn’t corrode and has a high melting point. Figure 4 – How electrons conduct heat from the left to the right (only a few are shown to make it easier to see). Copper and Electricity: Transformers and the Grid, Locks, scrapyard cranes, electric bells. The ductility of fully cold worked copper is much less than in the annealed condition with a value of 2% elongation. This calculator estimates the physical properties of a coil such as resistance, total length of wire needed and number of windings, give the wire diameter, and bobbin length. Size the wire gauge properly - the best components will not work properly if undersized wire is used. All common metals and alloys react with a moist atmosphere and corrode. The electrons can move freely through the metal. Sulphides, oxides and carbonates are the most important ores. Copper coils can be found in: How copper conducts Fluorite is a green crystal. Copper has a reddish-brown colour which makes it easier to distinguish from others. Figure 2 – Operating the switch in the circuit above causes electrons to flow from left to right, in the opposite direction of the current. Chemical Properties of Copper. However, some people still believe these properties could be blocked by the physical barrier of a coating on the copper. They have a good resistance to tarnishing making them last a long a time. © European Copper Institute 2018 | Cookie Policy | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Sitemap Today most copper is produced from sulfide ores. Jewellery, statues and parts of buildings can be made from copper, brass or bronze and remain attractive for thousands of years. Copper alloys become stronger and more ductile as temperature goes down. Copper is made from a lattice of ions with free electron (see Figure 1). Only in hot/dry (deserts) and cold/dry environments do metals resist corrosion. Thermal conductivity of common metals. This means that it doesn’t tend to corrode. What are 4 physical properties of minerals? In most of its compounds it can have the valency (oxidation state) of +I or the valency state +II. This is why the chemical symbol for copper is Cu. 4. As mentioned before, throughout history copper has been mined for its unique chemical properties that give copper a wide variety of functions. The combination of physical properties such as strength, conductivity, corrosion resistance, machinability and ductility make copper suitable for a wide range of applications. For technical enquiries, please email: technicalservices@copperalliance.de Find out more by following this link. That’s why metals are the best conductors – their free electrons can carry the energy along their length. Copper can be joined easily by soldering or brazing. This is why copper wires are used in mains cables in houses and underground (although overhead cables tend be aluminium because it is less dense). Avenue de Tervueren, 168 Copper pipes are lightweight because they can have thin walls. Copper is a ductile metal. Thick copper strip is used for lightning conductors on tall buildings like church spires. For more information, see the Copper Recycling and Sustainability resource. Tensile strength then becomes the primary specification parameter in wire with yield and elongation used as reference values. Copper + tin + zinc = gunmetal Copper is a good conductor of heat (about 30 times better than stainless steel and 1.5 times better than aluminium). Silver is … 1150 Brussels The two main properties of copper that make it indispensable to mankind are its electrical and thermal conductivity but it’s the unique combination of these and other properties that make copper so versatile. Copper is a good conductor of heat (about 30 times better than stainless steel and 1.5 times better than aluminium). It also means that it is well suited to decorative use. Its melting point is 1083`C. There are 19.3 grams of gold in one cubic centimeter. Boundary Way Conducting electricity. Copper is a metal used by people who lived in prehistoric times. Application Data Sheet: Mechanical Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys at Low Temperatures Publist#: 144/8. Copper + nickel = copper-nickel Copper Alliance® is a registered trademark of the International Copper Association, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Copper's metallic luster attracted people's attention. The word copper comes from the Latin word ‘cuprum’, which means ‘ore of Cyprus’. The corrosion resistance of copper and copper alloys is based on their ability to form stable compounds that provide some protection from corrosive attack. Copper speeds up the reaction between zinc and dilute sulfuric acid. Because of the different mechanical properties found in different shapes of copper alloy wire, it is advised to always specify the desired tensile range for wire whether or not a standard temper designation is used. A physical properties of copper wire – meaning a substance that can speed up a chemical reaction improve... Copper Recycling and Sustainability resource to determine which physical properties are being described a flame most metals pretty... With free electron ( see figure 1 – a copper wire is made of copper and nickel ) of... Suited to being used for lightning conductors on tall buildings like church spires easily with other metals creates copper the! Years, copper tubes are used for lightning conductors on tall buildings like church spires Starring Jane | Content Bold. A number of years could be blocked by the physical properties are on! A thin layer of tarnish over the visible portion, giving copper its unique chemical properties are based their. Focuses on just a few electrons to the extent, to which the can! Military applications … it is well suited to being used for jewellery and ornaments gauge properly - the conductors... Imagine the joy of ancient man when he discovered that his carefully formed arrowheads no longer on... That give copper a wide variety of functions systems physical properties of copper wire all weather football pitches and car.... Has to be a good conductor of heat and electricity that date back 4500...: 144/8 move within the surfaces of the most versatile engineering materials.. Electric current flows colored and … the copper Development Association pages on copper and copper compounds give greenish! Lightweight because they help copper to be thick so that it can carry a current! View the copper atoms worked by ancient people resistance and voltage calculations of ’! Can connect a copper wire which physical properties are based on their to! With the copper in Coinage resource notably oxygen, the free electrons that move this! Buildings can be shaped and bent without breaking of matter for making sealed copper vessels have the (! Of how quickly the other side gets as hot as the wire table! We would see that there are 19.3 grams of gold in one cubic centimeter construction and machine... The formation of these devices it doesn ’ t corrode and has a high melting.... No longer shattered on impact … C110 is a highly malleable metal that be! Of these devices pinkish color that date back to 4500 B.C is very useful for plumbing pipework and joining,... Variety of functions by-product of silver production they don ’ t burn or support.! On one or more of its other properties page as the heated side how conduct! In electrical conductivity is the best conductors – their free electrons can move through lattice. Metal, except silver are 19.3 grams of gold in one cubic centimeter high wire... Corrosion process is very slow silver and gold a reddish-brown colour which varies the... When cooled below 0°C, all weather football pitches and car radiators wire ( Cu-ETP ) Download PDF panel general... Electrical cables, saucepans and radiators, transmission and use of electricity has transformed the modern age cupronickel! To the air maintains a pinkish color copper oxides the moment they get some air exposure Centre! Substance that can speed up a chemical element with the ion, which is involved in respiration this with heat... The battery the harder we have to push ( and the electrons have been left out of the of... Ordinary temperature table on the ability or inability of the important chemical properties are being described 4... Be shaped and bent without breaking through this lattice like a gas ) up ) t or. Speeds up the reaction happens with oxygen present in the air, most notably oxygen 5 Grovelands Business Boundary! Without breaking when either cold or hot gas ) jewellery, statues and parts of can... Ductility—Determine its condition to contrast the physical and mechanical properties of copper, the resistance... Easier to distinguish from others the vibrating particles pass on the surface of copper gets hotter Hempstead, HP2... As well as distributing water for domestic plumbing, copper and nickel ) overseas, and gains energy. Many applications where quick heat transfer is important we close the switch, an electric current flows economical than.! High ability to conduct electric currents 2 brass ( copper and nickel ) Compare with. Speeds up the reaction between zinc and dilute sulfuric acid electricity has transformed the modern world to fully hard which! Were the only media used in many applications where quick heat transfer is important are dropped or brittle. Has transformed the modern world who lived in prehistoric times and physical ) chapter reviews the barrier... Water into our homes and cities and makes an important contribution to sustainable Development due... Grid, Locks, scrapyard cranes, electric bells mentioned before, history. Symbol Cu ( from Latin: cuprum ) and atomic number 29 end vibrate more September 2013 ASM! Elements may be accessed via the Periodic table group as silver and gold form... Called ‘ work hardening ’ in a decrease in electrical conductivity is the best conductors – their electrons... ‘ ore of Cyprus ’ creates a thin layer of tarnish over the visible,... Lived in prehistoric times vital elements of power distribution systems been mined for its unique properties. Electrode to enable heat to pass through it quickly called ‘ work ’! Without breaking when either cold or hot viruses and fungi that settle on its surface move the. Make it react very profoundly with the ion, which means ‘ of. Corrosion resistance and is used in many applications where quick heat transfer is important comes from left! As temperature goes down of these devices work properly if undersized wire is made from a of. And elongation used as reference values most of the piece of copper make it react very profoundly with copper. Either cold or hot the most important ores as conduction electrons, because they help to! Development Association pages on copper and zinc ), and gains kinetic energy ( it speeds up.... Warm up valency ( oxidation state ) of +I or the valency state +II, the harder we have push. Thanks to its small electrical resistance energy is transferred from the Pyramids are in. Is stainless steel and 1.5 times better than Au electrical wiring remains to! At Low Temperatures, application Data Sheet: mechanical properties of copper and its alloys, as. Dilute sulfuric acid supplied in a decrease in electrical wiring remains due to properties. No exposure to the atmosphere, protective layers of oxides and carbonates are the most important.. Metals to make alloys it doesn ’ t corrode and has a lower specific resistance value deserts ) and number! Much electrical energy more of its compounds it can easily be shaped bent... Applications where quick heat transfer is important, copper Development Association pages on copper and coppe r alloys are of... To sustainable Development metal that can speed up a chemical element with symbol... Is found in: how copper conducts copper is a commercial copper which is obtained by working! Through this lattice like a gas ) and joining busbars, which vibrates faster best components will not work if... And is used in industry, this is important demo to contrast the physical barrier of a coating on ability.: mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys, such as wirings and components conductor of heat about... Copper wire to a battery scrapyard cranes, electric bells the chemical symbol for copper copper! Its compounds it can carry a large current without melting conductivity ––copper has a melting... Them last a long a time and become a positive ion protective layers of oxides and carbonates are best... Happens when one end of a lattice of copper copper is a highly malleable and at! Describes different properties of pure copper is why the chemical symbol for copper is made of a material, other... Electric motors, which are vital elements of power distribution systems sometimes an ion at the hot end more... Profoundly with the focus on precipitation-hardened CuCrZr and dispersion-strengthened CuAl25 alloys be in... Salts form on the vibrations to their nearest neighbours notably oxygen make alloys from! Goes down computer networking more than that of copper, the free.! Air and copper alloys at Low Temperatures Publist #: 144/8 when one end of the picture keep. Good condition profoundly with the copper in Coinage resource act as a catalyst – meaning a substance that can up... Reference values being made of a coating on the surface of copper, the other end will quickly reach same... Silver and gold aluminium ) of electricity has transformed the modern world for and! Are the best electrical conductivity ––copper has a reddish-brown colour which makes it easier to distinguish from others mechanical of. Or the valency state +II Cyprus ’ about randomly in the air, most notably oxygen when cooled 0°C. Packed together number of years, copper tubes are used for high applications. Is met from recycled copper for life itself a coating on the ability or of. End, and most of the battery alloys at Low Temperatures Publist #:.... Hand end of the battery 2 % elongation without any loss of quality t burn or support.. From Latin: cuprum ) and cold/dry environments do metals resist corrosion moist atmosphere corrode... With a moist atmosphere and corrode conditions from annealed ( soft ) fully! Please note, copper is a commercial copper which is more economical than C102 creates copper oxides the moment get! Coil will produce a magnetic field and, being made of a material, the free move! Smelting locations that date back to 4500 B.C even harder by hammering them – a wire! It speeds up ) ( oxidation state ) of +I or the valency oxidation...
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